Style and Form

Manuscripts must be submitted in final form. The author is responsible for accuracy of data, names, quotations, citations, and statistical analysis. Submissions from the U.S.A. will use English units, followed by metric units in parenthesis. Submissions from outside the U.S.A. will feature metric followed by English units in parenthesis. Target length of articles is 2,500 to 3,000 words; longer articles will be edited for length.

First Submission

Initially, three double-spaced printed copies of the manuscript should be submitted to the Managing Editor (alternately, the manuscript can be sent with a cover letter via e-mail with an attached file using MS Word or Word Perfect). All accompanying tables, charts, and photo captions should be included.

Final Submission

Once manuscripts have been reviewed, accepted, and review comments have been incorporated, the final manuscript should be submitted electronically via e-mail or shipped with one computer diskette, clearly labeled with the type and version of computer software, (MS Word or Word Perfect preferred), authors name, and document title as it appears on the manuscript. Paragraphs must be double-spaced. Subheadings are desirable. Article titles should be short and explicit. The title, author’s name(s), and the abstract (if peer-reviewed) should be found at the top of the first page.

About the Author

A photo of the author, waist up and outdoors should be sent with each final manuscript submittal. At the end of the final manuscript, please include a one-sentence biography for each author with affiliation, location, mailing address, telephone number, and e-mail address.


If the figures contain graphics such as pie charts, maps, bar graphs, etc., authors can submit either of the following: (a) a laser printout of the graphics along with the manuscript — graphics of this type cannot be edited and they will be submitted to the publisher as camera-ready art; or (b) save the graphics as an object in the MS Word or Word Perfect file — hard copies or PDF file of the graphics must be enclosed with the final manuscript.


Use the table functions in MS Word or Word Perfect to format tables or include the data in an MS Excel spreadsheet so that we can create the chart without retyping the data. Hard copies showing the table layout must be enclosed with the final manuscript.

Literature Citations

Cite references parenthetically at the appropriate location in the text by author and year (Hendee 1995). List all references alphabetically by senior author, and in chronological order for multiple publications by the same author, at the end of the article. Do not use footnotes or endnotes. Citations should include full name(s) of authors, year of publication, title, source, publisher, and place of publication. Theses and unpublished manuscripts or occasional papers may be included sparingly.

Illustrations and Photographs

All photographs, line drawings, maps, and graphs are designated as figures and must be keyed to the text. They should be consecutively numbered and identified. Figure captions should be listed at the very end of the manuscript and keyed to numbered figures. Glossy black-and-white photos or high resolution color slides, photos, and digital images (300 dpi or higher, 4″ by 5″ image or larger, prefer jpg type file) are acceptable and they will be printed in black and white in the journal and color, if available, in the online version.